Can you take a screenshot of playback devices for me? Right click on the volume icon in the corner and select playback devices, and make sure to capture the entire list.
Also, make sure your default playback device are your speakers. Use the "Test" option under properties. And use the audio troubleshooter. This could be an issue with hierarchy. Unless you manually change it each time you plug something in, here's what it'll generally play through first:
USB DAC/USB audio device of any sort
Front panel jack headphones
Rear panel jack or monitor speakers
Built in speakers
If windows is defaulting to a device that isn't there, you won't get audio. You're probably getting audio through the USB heaset because it plays through those before it plays through your headphones... And as USB DACs (There's one inside your headset) isn't associated with the other audio circuitry, but the jack is, it'd leave me to believe that the 3.55 millimeter jack is the source of your issue.
If you have white noise, you might not have a complete circuit and the jack needs cleaning. Some metal fragments could be shorting it, so I'd try booting it down (just to be safe) and holding a small, powerful magnet in front of the the jack. If your lucky, something will come loose.
Another great way to clean a 3.55mm jack is with deox-it. Best electronics cleaner around. Just follow the instructions on the can and keep the laptop level. You'll want Deox-it F5 or D5, whichever has the red label.
Hope this helps!